(Tomsk region, Russia)
Institute of natural resources, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
In connection with the large atomic enterprise placing, planned in northern part of Tomsk, Russia, there exists a necessity of a problem-solving of its drinking and technical water delivery. Therefore data on a chemical composition of natural waters is one of evaluation stages of a geochemical condition of the territory.
The territory of Seversk’ atomic power station building is situated in the right-bank part of the Tom river undercurrent valley within the bounds of the second terrace above the flood-plain. Two relatively Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site small swamps – Klyukvennoe and Tyomnoe - are located here, which are poorly drained. Four small rivers (Shishkoboika, Mostovka, Chernaya, and Kamyshka) flow in this area, but their discharge in the summer time is only 0.8 – 4.9 l/sec in the mouthpart. In those places where the swamps frequently occur these rivers get lost and are impossible to be found among hummocks and bushes, i.e. water exchange in these areas according to our data is negligible .
Deposits underlying swampy-lake sediments are represented by Oligocene-Quaternary argillo-arenaceous units with lavishly spread groundwater. Top of these deposits is built by thin (2 – 3 m Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site) soft-permeable sandy clays, which serve as an underlying bed (though weak) for swamp waters, forming the perched water. Below sandy clays there mainly lie sand and gravel-pebble alluvial deposits with interbeds of clays and sandy clays, irregularly spread over the territory. Grittiness of the section is high, reaching in places 90 – 95%. Sand composition is quartz-feldspathic showing its weathering (authegene kaolinite). All this determines considerably high water abundance of these deposits: hydraulic conductivity values vary from 0.5 to 14 m/d, specific discharge of well runs up to 0.03-35 l/sec, transmissivity rate reaches 400 m2/d.
Gently hilly (horseback) relief Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site, extensive atmospheric precipitates, insignificant evaporation, shallow bedding (4-6 m) of groundwater, and the presence of hydraulic connection between swampy and ground waters contribute to swampy areas. Specifically, bogginess is confined to the areas of occurrence of relatively soft-permeable sandy clays, occupying the lower parts. It is important to note, that there is hydraulic connection between swampy and ground waters.
|Chemical components||Swamp waters||Small rivers||Lake water||Short holes|
|Humic Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site acids||6,3||178,5||54,0||3,0||8,4||5,2||1,1||6,0||18,6||11,7|
Table. Average chemical composition of natural waters of the investigated area, mg/l
The water samples were taken in August - November 2011. A total of 19 samples were taken including 9 samples directly from swamp, 5 – from various depths in boreholes drilled in peat deposits, 4 – from small rivers, and 1 – from lake.
The findings demonstrate (Table) that all waters (including groundwaters) are ultra-fresh and fresh (general TDS varies from 7 to 400 mg/l), subacid and perineutral, rarer - acidic (рН comes to 3,9-7,8), Ca-HCO3 or Ca-Na-HCO3, seldom Ca-Mg-HCO3 and have a high content of Fe (up to 22,5 mg/l). The most Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site fresh are lake and swampy waters, the average TDS of which is only 7 and 43,2 mg/l, respectively. The most mineralized are river waters, with an average salinity of 272 and a maximum exceeds groundwater - 400 mg/l. рН values act similarly: the most acid are the peat deposit waters (the minimum value of рН is 3,9), the less acid – river waters (рН 7,7).
The levels of chlorine- and sulphate-ions are low (less than 10 and 8 mg/l respectively). NO3 and NH3 content, on the contrary, is somewhat higher in relation to normal fresh waters . Specific behavior of Fe consists in the fact that its Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site levels are high in all type of waters starting from swampy ones apart from lake water. It is in the swamp water where they reach the value of 85 mg/l. This situation is accompanied by a low Eh value of the waters, and, as is shown below, by a very high content of organic matter in them.
Somewhat different behavior is typical of NH3, which reflects the biogenic character of the element, as well as its close relation to biochemical processes. Its contents are higher in swamp waters and groundwater.
The greatest difference of investigated waters consists in the high Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site content of organic matter in them, which exceeds the content of mineral salts.
1. O.S. Naymushina, S.L. Shvartsev, M.A. Zdvizhkov, A. El-Shinawi. Chemical characteristics of swamp waters: a case study in the Tom River basin, Russia//Proceedings of the 13th international conference on water-rock interaction, WRI-13, Guanajuato, Mexico, 16-20 August 2010.-CRC Press/Balkema, 2010. – p.955-958 (ISBN: 0-415-60426-0)
2. Shvartsev, S. L. 2008. Geochemistry of fresh groundwater in the main landscape zones of the Earth. Geochemistry International 46 (13): 1285-1398.
Influence of natural fulvic acid on solubility of sulfide ores (experimental investigation)
V.S. Sobolev Institute of Geology and Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site Mineralogy SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia
Nowadays a great attention is paid to the problems of the functioning of the anthropogenically disturbed ecosystems of the ore regions and particularly to the factors determining the scope and ways of toxic heavy metal migration . It is widely known that the element behavior in the drainage waters, sediments and soils is regulated by Eh-pH conditions of the environment along with the presence of natural humic substances. Their most important property is the ability to form soluble and insoluble complexes with metal cations depending on the composition (fulvic and humic acids Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site, humin) and concentration and thus promoting or inhibiting leaching of the ore material or the accumulation of secondary phases .
This research is an experimental study of the oxidation process of pyrite-polymetallic ores under presence of fulvic acids (low molecular weight fraction of humic substances) in solutions with variable acidity. As an initial solid material the ore from the Kyzyl-Tashtyg deposit (Tuva Region, Russia) was chosen. The material is of a high interest due to planned exploit of the deposit . New data on a possible chemical composition of acid mine drainage can be especially relevant and practically useful.
Fig Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site. The sample fragment of the oxidized ore. 1, 3 - chalcopyrite, 2 – Fe oxide, 4 - pyrite.
Model experiments were performed to study the solubility of sulfide ores in a distilled water and in the solutions with different fulvic acid (FA) content. Experimental solutions were obtained from the peat (Kirsanovskoe swamp, Tomsk region, Russia). It was determined that under atmospheric conditions the sulfide mineral oxidation gives presumably a rise to a formation of an acidic drainage containing toxic heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd). The impact of a natural FA depends on the ability of the ore solid material to neutralize the acidity of the Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site solution. If the quantity of carbonates is sufficient at the first stage of oxidation, a significant increase in pH of the solutions without the FA ensures Fe and Cu removal into the solid phase (Fig.). Metal precipitation can be prevented by the formation of soluble fulvic-metal complexes under relatively more neutral and alkaline pH conditions. However, at a later stage, when there is an exhaustion of the neutralizing capacity of rocks, all solutions remained acidic for more than 100 days of leaching process. In this case FA inhibited the oxidation of sulfide minerals from the surface and Chemical composition of natural waters on the atomic power station building site reduced the removal of heavy metals into the solution.
Cu tended to precipitate on the surface of humic acids (high molecular weight fraction of humic substances) and this trend was intensified with increase of copper containing solution initial pH value.
1. Bortnikova S.B., Gaskova O.L., Bessonova E.P. (2006) Geochemistry of anthropogenic systems, 168pp.
2. Kabata-Pendias A. (2001) Trace elements in soils and plants (3rd ed.) CRC Press LLC, 331pp.